Assignment on Theories of Mass communication. GROUP C – DIRECT ENTRY

COURSE TITLE: THEORIES OF MASS COMMUNICATION.

COURSE CODE: MAS 220

              GROUP C – DIRECT ENTRY

200 LEVEL MASS COMMUNICATION

          http://www.ajahana.wordpress.com

1. ADEBIYI  OLAYINKA  E.                 29119625AE

2. ADEYEMI DAYO  J.                        290445561IJ

3. AKINPELU SHERIF  L.                  29050973CJ

4. ESSIEN ABIGAIL  F.                        29040920CB

5. IZAGBO JENNIFER  N.                   29037027GA

6. OBOH AKHERE ANN                     29037141AJ

7. OLAWUNMI TINUOLA  M.           29074149fa

8. ONUOHA HAPPINESS                    29107531ai

9. SELEKERE NIMIWEREMI   C.         29062702fd

WHAT IS THEORY?

 Theories have commonsencially been defined by Webster’s New Encyclopedic Dictionary as plausible or scientifically acceptable general principles offered to explain a phenomena.

Kerlinger(1973) defines a theory as “a set of inter-related constructs,definitions and propositions that give a systematic view about phenomena” by specifying relations among variables with the purpose of explaining and predicting such phenomena.

According to Severin and Tankard(1982), a theory “is a set of ideas of systematic generalizations based on scientific observation(and) leading to further empirical observation”.

Furthermore, Forcese and Richer (1973), is ” a model that has been tested” meaning that its concepts have been operationalized and the relationship among the variables verified. They also added that a theory ” consists of a set of propotions that are interrelated, a proposition taken to mean a verified statement of relationship between variables”.

Also, Folarin (1998) cites Wilbur Schramm’s (1963) definition of theory as a “crap detector” which enables us to separate scientific statements from unscientific ones.

Babbie (1986:37), defines a theory as “a systematic explanation for the observed facts and laws that relate to a particular aspect of life…” Adding that a theory must contain “the elements of concept, variables and statements”

In the field of Communication , theories are however postulated to discover the effects, influence , effectiveness and efficacy of mass medicated messages on individual and by extension the society.

Clearly, therefore, communication theory is “a set of ideas which provides an explanation for communication phenomena”. (Daramola , 2003)

MUTUALITY OF RESEARCH AND THEORY

Theory provides logical support while research are closely related through scientific method.

Social theory and social research are mutual, in the sense that they both use the systematic and scientific methods. Another point is fact that they exist in the origin of each other. A well-researched subject forms a theory; and a theory can also spring up from a hypothesis that begins a research.

Theory and research are interwoven and work hand in hand. One cannot do without the other. The existence of one depends on the other.

FUNCTIONS OF THEORIES

A theory has basic functions that it performs. These are:

* Theories help in describing, predicting and explaining a phenomenon.

* Theories help to link facts together. Without theories, facts will stand isolated and fragmented.

* It serves as a ‘crap detector’ which enables us to seperate scientific statements from unscientific ones.

WHY WE STUDY THEORIES.

* To help us manage reality;

* To enable us put facts in perspective;

* To gain intellectual satisfaction;

* To help us predict what will happen;

* To help us measure any scientific endeavour, research, report and experiment etcetera.

* It trains the mind to think in an abstract and analytical fashion.

* It serves as a channel through which an accepted body of knowledge is communicated

* While a specific theory may not provide solutions to a problem, the analyticak process that it entails enables us to think scientifically.

ORIGIN OF MASS COMMUNICATION THEORIES.

Mass Communication Theories are a set of theories about communication processes generated from a sender and delivered simultaneously to a mass of receivers through transmitting devices (media).

Mass Communication Theories have taken a large portion of media studies since the birth of mass media. Denis McQuail attempted to classify mass communication and media effects theories, distinguishing 4 main phases.

FOUR PHASES OF MASS COMMUNICATION. HISTORY

The first phase starts with origin of mass media, and continue during all 1930s. This period is characterized by passive audiences and powerful media, with strong and direct effects on individuals. Mass communication is mainly aimed at people’s behaviors manipulation. Main theories of this phase are: Propaganda and Hypodermic Needle Theory.

The second phase, which goes from the 1940s to the 1960s, in a more optimistic perspective starts considering the limitations of mass communication. Media are not so powerful, because audiences are resistant to their messages. Resistance is based upon psychological individual traits and a crucial role is played by social context and Opinion Leaders. In this period proliferate many mass communication theories such: Persuasion Theory, Two Steps Flow Model, Laswell’s 5 W’s Model, and the Limited Effects Theory.

During the third phase, going from 1970 to 1980, there is a general step backward to the first phase with some relevant differences. Media are again considered very powerful, but their effects are no longer immediate and impacting the short run of an individual; mass communication is seen as a long run influencer able to shape an individual competences, knowledge, values and beliefs. Most important theories of this phase are: Play Theory, Uses and Gratifications Theory, Spiral of Silence, and Agenda Setting Theory.

The fourth phase started in the 1980s, and is characterized by active audiences who are able to mitigate media effects on individuals’ behaviors. McQuail defined this last, and current phase, with the term “Negotiated Influence”. Media take the role of a social constructivist tool, meaning that their aim is to raise up consciousness in individuals as media programs are negotiated by individuals themselves with their expressed preferences. People have the power to choose what information and how they want it to be delivered. There is a tendency to reconsider Lazarsfeld’s perspective, as suggested in 1992 by Wolf, as far as it concerns the weight of personal relationships on individuals’ values, beliefs and behaviors. Social influence is not dictated by media, but goes through media and especially new media but is driven by social contexts. A strong example of this new concept are online social networks. Most relevant theories of this period are: Cultivation Theory and Dependence Theory.

PARADIGM SHIFTS IN MASS COMMUNICATION THEORIES

Paradigm shift in mass communication refers to a world view or groups of beliefs that researchers adopt to look at issues concerning mass communication. It is a transformation from one organizing theoretical perspective to another In the words of Thomas Kuhnn in his book titled ‘The structure of scientific revolution”, he argues that scientific advancement is not evolutionary, but rather is a series of peaceful interludes; punctuated by intellectually violent revolutions and in those revolutions, one conceptual world view is replaced ny another.

Though paradigm shifts require rejection of one view of reality in favour of a radically new order, most of these theories are not entirely new, but they were built om existing ones. They are for the most part updated versions of old ones.

Shift therefore occur when it becomes increasingly difficult for one paradigm to answer all the questions posed by changes in society due to new technologies and increase in knowledge and understanding. The paradigm shift in the history of mass communication are as follow:

* The All Powerful Media Paradigm

This perspective was the dominant paradigm in the Mass Society Era, when print was the dominant medium. It originated in the nineteen century. People believd that the media were all powerful and the messages were likened to a bullet released at an audience member, which has immediate and direct impact on the audience.

The media were considered to have the power to profoundly shape people’s perceptions of the social world and to manipulate their actions in subtle gut highly effective ways. (M’bayo, 2005:22)

However, this era was characterized.by two dominant perspectives; one that argued for the positive effects of the All Powerful Media and the other which branded their effects as negative. Scholars challenged this theory, arguing that it has no scientific basis, but they contended that no single theory could encompass the wide varieties. Of effects. Attributed to the media by the mass society theorists nor could any paradigm provide adequate. Explanation for all observations. The all powerful media theory eventually collapsed. Under its own weight (Baran 1999: 319), ushering in the Limited Effects Paradigm.

* The Limited Effects Paradigm

This era is believed to have emerged in 1938, When an Actor/Director Orsen Welles pulled an Halloween joke that creatures from Mars had invaded earth. This made about 1 million Americans to flee their home. Some scholars thought that it is because if the All Powerful Media theory but lazersfeld and his colleagues conducted a research which shows that, another 5 million Americans remained undisturbed.

Further investigation revealed that media audiences have one or more psychologicak traits that made them especially susceptible to media influence: Fatalism, Phobic personality, Emotional insecurity and lack of self-confidence.

Lazarsfeld and his colleagues were able to proof that the limtation was due to individual differences such as intelligence and educational levels, social categories such as religion and political affiliations ans personal relationships such as friends and family. They argued that media were no longer feared as instruments of political oppression and manipulation because the public itself was viewed as very resistant to persuasion and extremist manipulation.

The theories that emerged from these systematic and scientific studies of media effects are now called the limited effects theories which include, the Two-Step Flow Theory which states that messages pass from the media through opinion leaders to opinion followers, the Uses and Gratifications Theory, the Diffusion of Innovations Theory, among others. Lazarsfeld and his colleague provided evidence that media rarely and indirectly influence individuals.

During the 2nd world war, Carl hovland, an expert in attitude change led the team to measure the effectiveness of these new media campaigns and he produced some of the century’s most influential work like:

Attitude Change Theory, Dissonance Theory, Klapper’s reinforcement Theory and a host of others

This perspective dominated the 50’s, 60’s and 70’s and its influence echoes even today.

* Moderate Effects Paradigm 

Owing to the shortcomings of the mass society theory was inadequate in explaining media impact, so was the limited effect perspective which could not explain changes in society and mass communication. But when television joined radio, everything changed because everyone has almost equal opportunity to consume media content firsthand and the “no effect” verdict was revisited.

The study carried by Maxwell McCombs and Donald Shaw on the 1968 American Presidential Election showed that the media were quite powerful in setting agenda for the public. This led to the development of the Agenda Setting Theory which posits that the mass media predetermined what issues are regarded as important at any givem time. (Jeffres 1997:15). (Folarin 2003:68) said that Agenda Setting Theory does not ascribe to the media the power to determine what people actually think, but it does ascribe to them the power to determine what to think about (Folarin 2003: 68).

* The Powerful Media Revisited

With the birth of television and new technologies such as cable, VCR, Satellite and computer networks, and now the internet, mediating factors such as church, family and school began to lose their traditional socializing role for many people. It has become increasingly difficult to ignore the media and their increasing influence especially in the areas of socialization, perception of social reality and knowledge of public and political issues due to Agenda Setting by the. Mass media, acquisition of cognitive and motor skills, and satisfaction of individual needs for entertainment diversion. (Baran 1999:330). Noelle Neuman presented the power of the media in her article “Return to the consept of Mass media” and her Spiral of Silence theory. Spiral of science theory is a public opinion. Theory which posits that the mass media are the most readily available source for assessing the prevailing public opinion climate and whatever view predominates in the media will tend to be magnified in the subsequent stages of personal opinion formation and expression. Neuman argues that truly certain parts of the society can make their opinion knwon and thus have greater influence over public policy, consequently, the news media are a prominent source of information about public opinion and even a formulator, are quite powerful. This belief lead to the creation of the following theories which are:

* Dependency Theory by Melvin Defluer and Sandra Ball Rokeach.

* George Gerbner’s Cultivation Analysis

* Çritical Çultural Theory

* Emerging Media

 As a result of the new technologies and their applications appear to have set the stage for a Paradigm change. Marshall McLuhan in this theory of Technological Determinism states that we are living in a new age of technology that has never being experienced before and these new media are changing the way people think, act and feel and that this current technological environment will be seen as a major turning point in the history of communication.

Luhan argues that it is the medium itself that alters human perception and affects human consciousness because electronic technology has become extension of our senses. This is why the radio and telephone are extensions of our ears, Television and Computer extends the eyes. This in turn leads to the saying that “the medium is the message”

REFERENCES

Godwin(2001) Basic Dimensions in Mass Communication.

Hdx communications ltd.

Solomon, Olufemi, James, (2008) Models and Theories of Communication.

African Renaissance Books incoporated.

Sina Aina (2003) Anatomy of Mass Communication.

Prof Ralph Akinfeleye, () Mass Communication: ABook of Readings.

http://www.12manage.com/description_mass_communication_theories.html

 

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                                                              BBC ANCHORS

1. CARMEN ROBERTS       

TWITTER HANDLE: @carmenlroberts

She was born in Singapore, her father was from New Zealand and her grandparents were Scottish. However, Carmen  grew up  on Australia’s GoldCoast and moved to London in 2000. She is currently based in Singapore. She is also a presenter, predominantly for the BBC Fast Track travel program, broadcast on BBC World Television.

 

2. TIM WILLCOX

TWITTER HANDLE: @BBCTimWillcox

Willcox studied at the University of Durham. He is a British journalist, presenter, newsreader, writer, and producer. He also has notable credits from ITV news, BBC News Channel, BBC World News, and World News Today. And he is also a journalist for BBC News where he presents news bulletin for both the BBC News Channel and BBC World News.

 

3. AARON HESLEHURST

TWITTER HANDLE: @aaron-heslehurst

He was born in 1967 in Sydney, Australia. He is a BBC World television presenter of ten seen presenting World Business Report. Since March 2008, he has also been a regular face on BBC Breakfast, presenting the business news as well as a regular  presenter on BBC News  Channel .Heslehurst also presents a segment on Fast Track called Flight Track, covering aviation news. He is also seen  hosting and moderating at many of the world’s leading airlines/airport conferences, including the IATA AGM and the RDG World Route Development Forum.

 

4. LUCY HOCKINGS

TWITTER HANDLE: @LucyHockings

Hockings was born in 1975. She is a New Zealander.  She is from Taranki and also had a  degree in journalism from the University of Auckland. She works as a television journalist for BBC News Channel where she anchors the  BBC World News

 

5. DAVID EADES

TWITTER HANDLE: @bbcdavideades

Eades is a journalist and newsreader working for BBC News. He presents the news between 0800-1200 on BBC World News. He previously has been a Northern Ireland correspondent for the BBC, as well as Europe correspondent and senior Sports News correspondent. He has presented the evening shot on BCB News24 most weekdays alongside Carrie Gracie. Eades has reported on many other major news events. He has also presented weekend edition of Breakfast and presents BBC Radio 4’s The World Tonight . He runs his own small business called All Day Media Ltd

 

ALJAZEERA NEWS ANCHORS

1. RAGEH OMAAR

TWITTER HANDLE:  @ragehomaar

He was born on the 19th July, 1967, Mogadishu, Somalia. He is a British journalist and he also writes. His latest book  Only Half of Me deals with the tension between these  two sides of his identity. He used to be a BBC World affairs correspondent, where he made his  name reporting in Iraq. In September 2006, he moved to a new post at Al Jazeera English, where he presented the nightly weekday documentary series ‘Witness’ until  January 2010. The Rageh  Omaar Report,  first aired February 2010, is a new- one hour, monthly investigative documentaries in which  Rageh  Omaar   reports  on the world’s most important current affair stories.

 

2. GHIDA FAKHRY

TWITTER HANDLE: @GHADINEWS

Ghida Fakhry was born in Beirut, Lebanon, where she lived till the age of six. He is a Lebanese journalist and is one of the primary broadcasters of the news channel; Aljazeera English at the network’s Doha broadcast headquarter since January 2010. She has also been the host of Witness an award winning documentary program.

 

3. ADRIAN FINIGHAN

TWITTER HANDLE: @afinighan

Finighan was born on 20th December 1964. He is a British journalist working as a presenter and reporter for the television channel Al Jazeera  English ( AJE). He is based at Al Jazeera World headquarter in Doha and presents programme from there.

 

NIGERIAN NEWS ANCHORS

1. LUKMAN MUSA

TWITTER HANDLE: @lukman _musa

 Lukman musa is an anchor of the program This Morning on Television Continental. He alongside has invited  guest who discuss the  happenings in the country and interest with people listening and seeing live on television.

 

2. ANIWURA OMOLAYO

TWITTER HANDLE: @thisvoiceiswura

She is a show anchor and newscasters at Rainbow 94.1 fm. She possesses a unique creative thinking, experienced skill and resourcefulness which make her well in her profession.

 

3. SULAIMAN ALEDEH

 TWITTER HANDLE: @aledeh

An Award- Winning Broadcaster journalist at Channels, Lagos, Nigeria. Social Media Advocate and Inclusion speaker. He is also a Nigerian – senior producer / News Anchor / Presenter at Channels Television.

 

4. VICTORIA PEPPLE

TWITTER HANDLE: @vickipepple

Victoria is a television presenter on Silverbird Television where she anchors the show Today on STV. Also a make –up artiste, business woman and a motivational speaker. She lives in Lagos, Nigeria and is from Bonny .

 

5. INI THOMPSON

TWITTER HANDLE: @inivictoria

Ini is a vibrant lady and charismatic lady from Akwa Ibom State. Armed with a bachelor’s degree in Economics from Enugu State University of Science and Technology and a Post Graduate Diploma in Broadcast Journalism from Nigeria Institute of journalism (NIJ). She produces and presents Travel Guide on Channel Television’s travel and tourism program with years of experience that date as far back as 2003 and includes reportorial duties.

 

6. AYO TUNDE BALOGUN  

TWITTER HANDLE: @AyBalogun13

A news presenter and host on Question Time.  He is a newscaster, presenter, and reporter for Channel Television. Though born and raised in Lagos, Ayo hails from Ondo State and he got his both Lagos and Ibadan Oyo State.  He is a news anchor in Newstrack and the Flagship News at Ten. He also presents News round bringing you a recap of stories that made weekly headlines.

 

7. OGE OSIH

TWITTER HANDLE: @ogechukwuosih

Oge is a Producer, presenter of Entertainment News and Metro file on Channels Television.

 

8. TUNDE IBITOYE

TWITTER HANDLE: @ToyinIbitoye

Toyin is an award winning sports caster and a graduate of Agricultural extension science from the University of  Ibadan. He anchors the show Channels Sports on Channels Television.  He is married with kids and is very passionate about Nigeria sports. He loves writing, real life stories in movies.

 

9.  FUNMI IYANDA

TWITTER HANDLE: @chefyinks

 Olufunmilola  Aduke Iyanda was born on 27th July, 1971 and  is better known as Funmi Iyanda. She is a multi award winning broadcaster, journalist, columnist and blogger. She produced and hosted Nigeria’s most popular and authoritative talk show called New Dawn with Funmi, which aired on the National Television Authority (NTA) for 8 years. Funmi is the CEO of Ignite Media, a content driven media organisation, operating out of Lagos. In 2011, Funmi was honoured as a Young Global Leader (YGL) by the World Economic Forum.

 

10. ESTHER OGUNJOBI

TWITTER HANDLE: @MaupeO

Her full name is Esther Maupe Ogunjobi. She is a journalist presenter, reporter. And also a believer and advocate for a better Nigeria.

 

11. CHAMBERLAIN USOH

TWITTER HANDLE: @chamberlainusoh

Usoh is an award winning presenter and newscaster. He is a co host on the Sunrise Daily show on Channels Television which is aired daily in the morning and he sometimes hosts the program News at Ten on Channels Television.

 

12.  ADERINSOLA.O. ADEBANJO

TWITTER HANDLE: @aderinsolajesu

Aderinsola is a news reporter, and also a segment producer in Africa Independent Television (AIT) senior media and client Service Executive at Mindshare Communication. She is also a News Anchor

 

CNN ANCHORS

1. ANDERSON COOPER

TWITTER HANDLE: @andersoncooper

Anderson Hay Cooper was born on 13th June, 1967, New York, United States. He is an American journalist, author, and television personality. He is the primary anchor of the CNN news show Anderson Cooper 36O degree. The program is normally broadcast live from the studio. However, Cooper often broadcast live in location for breaking news stories. As of September 2011, he also serves as host of his own show eponymous syndicated daytime talk show, Anderson.

 

2. JACK CAFFERTY

TWITTER HANDLE: @jackcafferty

 Cafferty was born on 14th December, 1942. He is a CNN commentator and occasional host of specials. In the summer of 2005, he joined The Situational Room.

 

3. ALI VELSHI

TWITTER HANDLE: @AliVelshi

Velshi was born on 29th October, 1969, Nairobi, Kenya. He is a Canadian – American television journalist, best known for his on CNN.  He is CNN’s Chief Business correspondent, anchor of CNN’s Your Money and a co- host of CNN International’s weekday business show World Business Today.

 

4. AARON BROWN

TWITTER HANDLE : @AaronBrown

Brown was born on 10th November, 1948, Hopkins, Minnesota, U.S. He is an American broadcast journalist most   recognised for his coverage of the September 11, 2001 attacks, his first day on air at CNN. He was a long time reporter for ABC, the founding host of ABC’s World News Tonight and the host of CNN’s flagship evening program News Night with Aaron Brown. He is also an instructor at the Walter Cronkite School of Journalism and MassCommunication  at Arizona State University.

 

5. PIERS MORGAN

TWITTER HANDLE: @piersmorgan

 Piers Stefan Morgan was born on 30th March, 1965, Guildford, Surrey, England. He is known professionally as Piers Morgan. He is a British journalist and a television presenter. He is the editorial director of First News, a national newspaper for children. He host the program Piers Morgan Tonight for CNN in the timeslot previously occupied by Larry King Live after the retirement of host Larry King. He has authored 8 books, including 3 volumes of memoirs.

 

6. ERROL BARNETT

TWITTER HANDLE: @ErrolCNN

Barnett was born on 3rdApril, 1983, Milton, Keynes, England. He is an anchor and correspondent for CNN International, while initially based at the CNN International, while World Headquarters’ in Atlanta, Georgia since August 2010 he has been anchoring Prism at the networks production hub in Alou Dhabi. The one- hour news program has focused on the Arab Uprising and other global news.

 

7. RICHARD QUEST

TWITTER HANDLE: @richardquest

Quest was born on 9th March, 1962, Liverpool, United Kingdom. He is an English journalist and CNN International anchor and reporter based in London. He anchors Quest Means Business. In addition to anchoring the five- time weekly business program, Quest hosts the monthly program Business Traveller. He formerly anchored the monthly show Quest and the daily show CNN Today which was geared towards morning audience in Europe.

8. TORY DUNNAN

TWITTER HANDLE: @ToryDunnan

Tory is a correspondent for CNN News Source’s Running Mate, serving more than 800 affiliates. CNN Running Mate 2012 is a market exclusive source for the person closed coverage, award winning reporting and insightful analysis for one of the biggest stories for the next year.  Tory is based in Washington,  DC, and  reports from political events, the first Presidential primary in New Hampshire, the CNN – sponsored debate and the political convention.

 

9. HALA GORANI

TWTTER HANDLE: @HalaGorani

 Gorani was born on 1st March, 1970, Seattle, Washington, U.S.A. He is an American anchor, correspondent for CNN International based in the network’s headquarters in Atlanta, Georgia. She anchors CNN International’s 7pm CET International Desk from CNN centre. Gorani previously co- hosted Your Today with Jim Clancy until February 2009, when she left the program to anchor her own show.

 

10.  BECKY ANDERSON

TWITTER HANDLE: @BeckyCNN

Becky was born on 15th November, 1967 in Manchester, England. She is a British journalist and the anchor of CNN International’s flagship news and current affairs primetime news programme Connect the World. She previously hosted the Business

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UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS

 

 

 

FLOOD IN NIGERIA

  

                                                           

 

This is a major problem in Nigeria when it comes to rainy season. Most  Nigerians living in some areas in Lagos  such as Iba, Ikoyi  and some states in Nigeria suffer severely due to flood caused by  heavy downpour of rain and also in most  states  in Nigeria, we encounter  this problem of flood which is caused by the people. The government have tried to educate us on this issue that throwing of waste materials into gutters is a major cause of flood, but most Nigerians ignore this teaching.

One major cause of this is blocking of drainage system with refuses such as pure water nylons, cans e.t.c by most Nigerians. Drainage systems such as gutters that are meant for the disposal of liquid waste have now being turned into dumping ground for refuse. And as a result of this, gutters are filled with refuse leading to a hard flow of water and liquid waste. So when it rains, instead of the rain water flowing into the gutter, it overflows due to the number of refuse that have being thrown into the gutter, which in turn results to flooding of the area.  

 

Also water dams are not properly taken care of because they are not highly maintained through weekly sanitation which involves the cleaning of water dams. This is for the purpose of the easy flow of rain water and liquid waste. In some areas in Lagos and some states in Nigeria, environmental sanitation is ignored and if exercised it is poorly done.  So the absence of environmental sanitation in such areas lead to flooding due to the poor maintenance of water dams .The flood in recent times  in Nigeria have caused man damages to people. Also most recent  flood  has caused damages on houses, roadways, sewerage system and canal.

 

The recent flood incident happened in some streets  in  Lagos, such as  Bariga, Ajegunle,Lagos Island and some other places which  were seriously affected  by the heavy downpour of the rain which started in the early hours of Wednesday, 27th June 2012 and also the evening of Thursday, 28th , June 2012 causing flood in these areas. People were not able to go out, schools in these areas were closed and some workers had to stay at home due to the flooded areas and also cars could not move out of the water due to this flood.

Every year government try to construct a good drainage system in these areas but in spite of that, citizens are still being adamant to yielding to this instruction which will benefit them.

In Conclusion, I think the government should enforce a law that anyone caught in the act of throwing waste materials  in drainage channels should be sanctioned.

 

REFERENCES

1. Images : google.com/floods/images

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THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF ICT

LIST OF GROUP MEMBERS WITH THEIR MATRICULATION NUMBERS

  1.  Adebiyi Adewunmi A.    117582
  2. Adebiyi Olayinka E.        117712
  3. Ademola Zainab A.         117704
  4. Adeyemi Dayo J.             106415
  5. Akinpelu Sherif L.           117341
  6. Essien Abigail F.-             117800
  7. Ijapbo Jenifer N.-             117330
  8. Oboh Akhere Ann-           118102
  9. Olawunmi Tinuola M.      117184
  10. Onuoha Happiness          117268
  11. Selekere Nimiweremi C. 117209

 

THE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF ICT

As it is known from time immemorial that everything in life is like the two side of a coin, there is always a positive and negative side of every phenomenon. But whether the effect is positive or negative the effects of Information Communication Technology (ICT)  is far reaching and cannot be overemphasized. The Effects of ICT lens looks at how our lives have been changed, for better and for worse, by the impact of ICT. It includes both positive effects and negative effects and looks at how individuals organisations and society are affected.

POSITIVE IMPACTS OF ICT

ICT CAN HAVE POSITIVE IMPACTS ON PEOPLE

 

  • Access to information: Possibly the greatest effect of ICT on individuals is the huge increase in access to information and services that has accompanied the growth of the Internet. Some of the positive aspects of this increased access are better, and often cheaper, communications, such as VoIP phone and Instant Messaging. In addition, the use of ICT to access information has brought new opportunities for leisure and entertainment, the facility to make contacts and form relationships with people around the world, and the ability to obtain goods and services from a wider range of suppliers.
  • Improved access to education, e.g. distance learning and on-line tutorials. New ways of learning, e.g. interactive multi-media and virtual reality. New job opportunities, e.g. flexible and mobile working, virtual offices and jobs in the communications industry.
  • New tools, new opportunities: The second big effect of ICT is that it gives access to new tools that did not previously exist. A lot of these are tied into the access to information mentioned above, but there are many examples of stand-alone ICT systems as well:

a)      ICT can be used for processes that had previously been out of the reach of most individuals, e.g. photography, where digital cameras, photo-editing software and high quality printers have enabled people to produce results that would previously required a photographic studio.

b)      ICT can be used to help people overcome disabilities. e.g. screen magnification or screen reading software enables partially sighted or blind people to work with ordinary text rather than Braille.

NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF ICT ON PEOPLE

  • Job loss: One of the largest negative effects of ICT can be the loss of a person’s job. This has both economic consequences, loss of income, and social consequences, loss of status and self esteem. Job losses may occur for several reasons, including: Manual operations being replaced by automation. e.g. robots replacing people on an assembly line.Job export. e.g. Data processing work being sent to other countries where operating costs are lower. Multiple workers being replaced by a smaller number who are able to do the same amount of work. e.g. A worker on a supermarket checkout can serve more customers per hour if a bar-code scanner linked to a computerized till is used to detect goods instead of the worker having to enter the item and price manually
  • Reduced personal interaction: Being able to work from home is usually regarded as being a positive effect of using ICT, but there can be negative aspects as well. Most people need some form of social interaction in their daily lives and if they do not get the chance to meet and talk with other people they may feel isolated and unhappy.
  • Reduced physical activity: A third negative effect of ICT is that users may adopt a more sedentary lifestyle. This can lead to health problems such as obesity, heart disease, and diabetes. Many countries have workplace regulations to prevent problems such as repetitive strain injury or eyestrain, but lack of physical exercise is rarely addressed as a specific health hazard.

ICT CAN HAVE A POSITIVE EFFECT ON ORGANIZATIONS

There are three main areas in which organisations are affected by the use of ICT, communications, information management, and security. The three areas have considerable overlap.

  • Communication:  By using ICT has brought a number of benefits to organisations, such as: Cost savings by using e.g. VoIP instead of normal telephone, email / messaging instead of post, video conferencing instead of traveling to meetings, e-commerce web sites instead of sales catalogues. Access to larger, even worldwide, markets. Web sites can be seen from all parts of the world and orders can be taken wherever there is a compatible banking system to process payments, e.g. credit / debit card, Pay-Pal, bank transfer facility. Web sites also have 24 hour opening and are available every day of the year. Flexible response. Organisations with good communications can respond to changes quickly. This may mean better customer relations, an improved supply chain for goods and services, faster development of new products to meet a new opportunity, etc.
  • Information management: Organisations can benefit from using ICT for information management. e.g. Data mining of customer information to produce lists for targeted advertising. Improved stock control, resulting in less wastage, better cash flow, etc.Mangers are better informed and will have more reliable and up-to-date information on which to base their decisions.
  • Security: Although the use of ICT can bring its own security issues, see next section, it can also solve or reduce some security problems, e.g. Encryption methods can keep data safe from unauthorized people, both while it is being stored or while it is being sent electronically. This is important for reasons such as data protection legislation or commercial secrecy. ICT enables physical security systems such as fingerprint, iris or facial recognition.

NEGATIVE IMPACTS OF ICT ON ORGANIZATIONS

a)      Cost:  the cost of using ICT may cause a number of problems for organisations.  A lot of ICT hardware and software is expensive, both to purchase and to maintain. An ICT system usually requires specialist staff to run it and there is also the   challenge of keeping up with ever-changing technology. These extra costs should be offset by the poitive effects of using ICT, but if an organisation gets its cost-benefit analysis wrong it may lose money.

b)      Competition:  this is usually thought of as being a good thing, but for some organisations being exposed to greater competition can be a problem. If the organisation is competing for customers, donations, or other means of funding nationally or even internationally, they may lose out to other organisations that can offer the same service for less money.

c)       Security:  this is always a problem for any organisation that uses ICT. Data must be kept secure, Internet connections must be protected from attack, new viruses and other forms of malware are released nearly every day.

Organisations will usually have legal obligations to protect data such as customer information. Even if the organisation does not have to comply with a specific data protection law it will usually be in the organisation’s interest to protect data from rivals.

ICT CAN HAVE POSITIVE EFFECT ON THE SOCIETY

Probably the largest effect that ICT use has on on society is allowing members of society to have greatly increased access to information.This can have numerous positive effects, such as:

a)      increasing opportunities for education

b)      improving communication

c)       allowing people to participate in a wider, even worldwide, society.

The positive impact of ICT on education: On the positive side, the use of ICT in education can provide opportunities that might not otherwise exist, such as:

1. distance learning, where students can access teaching materials from all over the world,

2. the ability to perform ‘impossible’ experiments’ by using simulations,

3. the possibility for students to have individual learning programs within a topic, rather than everybody having to do the same thing at the same time at the same pace. More able students can be given more challenging work, less able students can access remedial lessons.

the negative impact of ICT on education:

                    I.            There are large costs involved and poorer students / educational establishments establishments can end up being disadvantaged. This is often referred to as being a factor in the digital divide

                    II.            Students, and sometimes teachers, can get hooked on the technology aspect, rather than the subject content. Just because a topic can be taught via ICT, does not mean that it is taught most effectively via ICT.
Even if a subject can be taught effectively via ICT, and there is the money available, it does not always follow that there is any advantage to it. There have been a lot of studies / assessments carried out, looking to see if ICT usage improves learning. The results are mixed. Much simplified, it would appear that:
1. there is some initial impact of using ICT in that students get a wider range of resources and experience some extra motivation.
2. the motivation effect soon fades as using ICT becomes the new normal
3. the wider resource range remains a positive factor
4. there are some well documented positive effects in specific. e.g. simulation and modelling is effective in improving science standards, use of word processing and communication software is effective in developing language skills, but there is concern that large areas of the curriculum are not benefiting.

The manner in which the subject is taught probably has a larger effect than the mere use of ICT. i.e. if the teacher does not adapt their methods in order to make best use of ICT, the students do not gain from that use.
The attitude of the educational establishment also seems to have a greater effect. i.e. the people running them may not have the knowledge and experience, or often the money, to enable widespread and effective use of ICT in their schools.
The attitude of society / government can have a large impact of how ICT is perceived and thus how effectively it is used. Countries where the government encourages ICT usage and where the majority of the people use ICT on a daily basis are likely to make better use of ICT in education as well as in the larger society.
On the other hand, in countries where some uses of ICT are restricted because of e.g political or religious reasons, the use of ICT in education becomes less effective and may even be seen as a threat to those in power and thus actively discouraged

NEGATIVE IMPACT OF ICT ON SOCIETY

Probably the largest effect that ICT use has on on society is allowing members of society to have greatly increased access to information. This can have numerous negative effects, such as: causing a digital divide between those who can access information and those who cannot, reducing levels of education and understanding due to the vast amount of incorrect and misleading information that is available causing moral and ethical problems due to the nature of some of the material available.

 

 

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  1.  Adebiyi Adewunmi A.- 117582
  2. Adebiyi Olayinka E.-     117712
  3. Ademola Zainab A.-     117704
  4. Adeyemi Dayo J.-         106415
  5. Akinpelu Sherif L.-      117341
  6. Essien Abigail F.-        117800
  7. Ijapbo Jenifer N.-         117330
  8. Oboh Akhere Ann-      118102
  9. Olawunmi Tinuola M.- 117184
  10. Onuoha Happiness- 117268
  11. Selekere Nimiweremi C. -117209

Name: Essien Abigail Florence

Reg no.: 117800

Course Code: FMAS 121

Course Title: Introduction to Modern Communication Technology

                                                ASSIGNMENT

Definition of Information and Communication Technology

Information And Communication Technology (ICT) simply refers to technologies that provide access to information through telecommunications. It is similar to Information Technology (IT), but focuses primarily on communication technologies. This may include the Internet, wireless networks, cell phones, and other communication mediums.

The term ICT is now also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system.

What is Computer?

A computer according to Wikipedia is a programmable machine designed to automatically carry out a sequence of arithmetic or logical operations.  It could also be described as an electronic device for storing and processing data, typically in binary form, according to instructions given to it in a variable program.

To say a brief history, the evolution of computers started way back in the era before Christ, BC. History of computers dates back to the invention of a mechanical adding machine in 1642. ABACUS, an early computing tool, the invention of logarithm by John Napier and the invention of slide rules by William Oughtred were significant events in the evolution of computers from these early computing devices.

First generation computers made use of vacuum tubes. These computers were expensive and bulky. They used machine language for computing and could solve just one problem at a time. They did not support multitasking.

In the 1960s, transistor based computers replaced vacuum tubes, Transistors made computers smaller and cheaper. They made computers energy-efficient. But transistors led to emission of large amounts of heat from the computer, which could damage them. The use of transistors marked the second generation of computers. Computers of this generation used punched cards for input. They used assembly language.

The use of Integrated circuits marked the evolution of the third generation of computers. Their use increased the speed and efficiency of computers. Operating systems were the human interface to computing operations and keyboards and monitors became the input-output devices. COBOL, one of the earliest computer languages, was developed in 1959-60. BASIC came out in 1964. It was designed by John George Kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz. Douglas Engelbart invented the first mouse prototype in 1963. Computers used a Video Display Terminal (VDT) in the early days. The invention of Color Graphics Adapter in 1981 and that of Enhanced Graphics Adapter in 1984, both by IBM added ‘color’ to computer displays. All through the 1990s, computer monitors used the CRT technology. LCD replaced it in the 2000s. Computer keyboards evolved from the early typewriters. The development of computer storage devices started with the invention of Floppy disks, by IBM again.

Thousands of integrated circuits placed onto a silicon chip made up a microprocessor. Introduction of microprocessors was the hallmark of fourth generation computers.

We are currently in the Era of the fifth generation computers are in their development phase. It is assumed that they would be capable of massive parallel processing, support voice recognition and understand natural languages.

Types of Computer:

  1. Digital Computers: They are computers that process data which is represented in the form of discrete values (0,1,2,3,) by operating on it in steps.
  2. Analog Computer: they are computers that operate on values represented in the form of continuous variables
  3. Hybrid Computers: They consist of analog and digital computers connected together in a single unit.
  4. Mainframe Computers: They are reduced form of super computers.
  5. Mini-Computers: They are computers in PDP-8, which are reliable, small in size and low cost.
  6. Micro Computers:  They are small computers consisting of processor on a single silicon chip mounted on a circuit board together with memory chips, ROMS and RAMS chips etc. e.g. palmtops, Ipad, laptop, etc.
  7. Supercomputer

Uses of Computer: The computer has so many uses, some of its uses are- Researching, Record keeping, Presentations, Database Programming, Database keeping, Website designing and Maintenance.

Input devices: they are devices that enable a computer user to communicate inwardly to the computer in order to process information.

They include Mouse, Keyboard, Light Pen, and Scanner.

Output devices: they are referred devices that help communicate back to computer users. they are printers and display screens (monitors)

Processing devices: this is referred to as the heart of computers. They are the components that usually executes instructions organized in programs. They include the Central Processing Unit(CPU), and hard disks drives (HDD)

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LIST OF GROUP C MEMBERS

  1.  Adebiyi Adewunmi A.- 117582
  2. Adebiyi Olayinka E.-     117712
  3. Ademola Zainab A.-     117704
  4. Adeyemi Dayo J.-         106415
  5. Akinpelu Sheriff L.-      117800
  6. Essien Abigail F.-        117800
  7. Ijapbo Jenifer N.-         117330
  8. Oboh Akhere Ann-      118102
  9. Olawunmi Tinuola M.- 117184
  10. Onuoha Happiness- 117268
  11. Selekere Nimiweremi C. -117209
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fmas121 assignment

fmas121 assignment

NAME:             ADEBIYI OLUWAYINKA ELIZABETH

APP NO:          117712

DEPT:              MASS COMMUNICATION

COURSE:         MODERN COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

                                                (FMAS121)

LECTURER:      DR (MRS). IFEOMA AMOBI

 

         What is a Computer?

A computer is an electronic device which is capable of receiving the inputs (data from the user), storing it for a desired period of time, manipulating it according to the set of instructions (called program) and producing the

     Define ICT?

ICT (information and communications technology – or technologies) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications output to the user in desired form. It performs a variety of operations in accordance to the set of instructions.

 

associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning.

ICTs are often spoken of in a particular context, such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries. The term is somewhat more common outside of the United States. Many countries around the world have established organizations for the promotion of ICTs, because it is feared that unless less technologically advanced areas have a chance to catch up, the increasing technological advances in developed nations will only serve to exacerbate the already-existing economic gap between technological “have” and “have not” areas.

 

 

 

Types of Computer

 

  1. Analog Computer: they are computers that operate on values represented in the form of continuous variables
  2. Hybrid Computers: They consist of analog and digital computers connected together in a single unit.
  3. Digital Computers: They are computers that process data which is represented in the form of discrete values (0,1,2,3,) by operating on it in steps.
  4. Mainframe Computers: They are reduced form of super computers.
  5. Mini-Computers: They are computers in PDP-8, which are reliable, small in size and low cost.
  6. Micro Computers:  They are small computers consisting of processor on a single silicon chip mounted on a circuit board together with memory chips, ROMS and RAMS chips etc.

 

 

 

Uses of a Computer

  1. Internet – It is a network of almost all the computers in the world. You can browse through much more information than you could do in a library. That is because computers can store enormous amounts of information. You also have very fast and convenient access to information. Through E-Mail, you can communicate with a person sitting thousands of miles away in a few seconds. Chat software enables one to chat with another on a real-time basis. Video conferencing tools are becoming readily available to the common man.
  2. Computers in Medicine – You can diagnose diseases. You can learn the cures. Software is used in magnetic resonance imaging to examine the internal organs of the human body. Software is used for performing surgery. Computers are used to store patient data.
  3. Mathematical Calculations– Thanks to computers, which have computing speeds of over a million calculations per second we can perform the biggest of mathematical calculations.
    1. Banks – All financial transactions are done by computer software. They provide security, speed and convenience.
    2. Travel – One can book air tickets or railway tickets and make hotel reservations online.
    3. Other uses are: storage of information such as pictures, documents etc… You can play games, research, study, do homeschooling, IM (instant Message), email, video and audio chat with others any place in the world. Listen and download music.

 

INPUTS

An input device is a peripheral used to transfer data from the outside world into a computer system. In other words, it is any machine that feeds data into a computer. Examples are:

Keyboard
Mouse
Light pen
Joystick
Scanner
Touch screen
Digitizing tablet
Microphone
Barcode reader.
Graphic tablet
Magnetic-stripe reader

 

OUTPUTS

An output device receives information from the computer and translates it from machine language to a form that humans can read or so that another machine can read the information. An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) to the outside world. Examples are:

Printers

Visual display unit (VDU)

Graphics

 

PROCESSING UNITS

Processing devices in a computer are responsible for controlling the storage and retrieval of information. The information is processed by the computer processor (CPU), which performs data calculations, data comparisons, and data copying with the information from the processing devices. The CPU then saves that information to the computer memory (RAM).

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Fmas 121 assignment

 

NAME:                        ADEBIYI OLUWAYINKA ELIZABETH

APP NO:          117712

DEPT:              MASS COMMUNICATION

COURSE:         MODERN COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY

                                                (FMAS121)

LECTURER:      DR (MRS). IFEOMA AMOBI

 

What is a Computer?

A computer is an electronic device which is capable of receiving the inputs (data from the user), storing it for a desired period of time, manipulating it according to the set of instructions (called program) and producing the output to the user in desired form. It performs a variety of operations in accordance to the set of instructions.

                                                                                    

 

     Define ICT?

ICT (information and communications technology – or technologies) is an umbrella term that includes any communication device or application, encompassing: radio, television, cellular phones, computer and network hardware and software, satellite systems and so on, as well as the various services and applications associated with them, such as videoconferencing and distance learning.

ICTs are often spoken of in a particular context, such as ICTs in education, health care, or libraries. The term is somewhat more common outside of the United States. Many countries around the world have established organizations for the promotion of ICTs, because it is feared that unless less technologically advanced areas have a chance to catch up, the increasing technological advances in developed nations will only serve to exacerbate the already-existing economic gap between technological “have” and “have not” areas.

 

 

 

Types of Computer

 

  1. Analog Computer: they are computers that operate on values represented in the form of continuous variables
  2. Hybrid Computers: They consist of analog and digital computers connected together in a single unit.
  3. Digital Computers: They are computers that process data which is represented in the form of discrete values (0,1,2,3,) by operating on it in steps.
  4. Mainframe Computers: They are reduced form of super computers.
  5. Mini-Computers: They are computers in PDP-8, which are reliable, small in size and low cost.
  6. Micro Computers:  They are small computers consisting of processor on a single silicon chip mounted on a circuit board together with memory chips, ROMS and RAMS chips etc.

 

 

 

Uses of a Computer

  1. Internet – It is a network of almost all the computers in the world. You can browse through much more information than you could do in a library. That is because computers can store enormous amounts of information. You also have very fast and convenient access to information. Through E-Mail, you can communicate with a person sitting thousands of miles away in a few seconds. Chat software enables one to chat with another on a real-time basis. Video conferencing tools are becoming readily available to the common man.
  2. Computers in Medicine – You can diagnose diseases. You can learn the cures. Software is used in magnetic resonance imaging to examine the internal organs of the human body. Software is used for performing surgery. Computers are used to store patient data.
  3. Mathematical Calculations– Thanks to computers, which have computing speeds of over a million calculations per second we can perform the biggest of mathematical calculations.
    1. Banks – All financial transactions are done by computer software. They provide security, speed and convenience.
    2. Travel – One can book air tickets or railway tickets and make hotel reservations online.
    3. Other uses are: storage of information such as pictures, documents etc… You can play games, research, study, do homeschooling, IM (instant Message), email, video and audio chat with others any place in the world. Listen and download music.

 

INPUTS

An input device is a peripheral used to transfer data from the outside world into a computer system. In other words, it is any machine that feeds data into a computer. Examples are:

Keyboard
Mouse
Light pen
Joystick
Scanner
Touch screen
Digitizing tablet
Microphone
Barcode reader.
Graphic tablet
Magnetic-stripe reader

 

OUTPUTS

An output device receives information from the computer and translates it from machine language to a form that humans can read or so that another machine can read the information. An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) to the outside world. Examples are:

Printers

Visual display unit (VDU)

Graphics                   

 

PROCESSING UNITS

Processing devices in a computer are responsible for controlling the storage and retrieval of information. The information is processed by the computer processor (CPU), which performs data calculations, data comparisons, and data copying with the information from the processing devices. The CPU then saves that information to the computer memory (RAM).

 

 

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117184

Information and communications technological usually abbreviated as ICT is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT); the expression was first used in 1997 in a report by Dennis Stevenson to the U.K government and promoted by the new National Curriculum documents for the U.K. in 2000. The term is now also used to refer to the merging of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system.

ICT is often used in the context of “ICT” roadmap” to indicate the path that an organization will take with their ICT needs. It is also used as an overarching term in many schools, universities and colleges stretching from information systems/technology at the organizational end through to soft engineering and computer systems engineering at the other

DEFINITION OF COMPUTER

A computer is a data processing machine which can store and process data based on the logical supplied by the user. It stores information within itself and performs the necessary processing steps automatically.

TYPES OF COMPUTER

  • Analog computer
  • Hybrid computer
  • Digital computer
  • Mainframe computer
  • Mini computer
  • Micro computer   

 

USES OF COMPUTER

  1. It can send electrical pulses at an incredible speed
  2. It is reliable and can perform every task with the same speed and accuracy
  3. it executes task without any human intervention as far as the program is stored in it
  4. It can produce accurate result once the input is correct
  5. It stores and process large volume of data without being affected

 

LIST OF INPUT DEVICE

1)     Keyboard

2)     Pointing devices

3)     Game controller

4)     Imaging input

5)     Audio input

 

OUTPUT DEVICE

Printer

Visual display Unit (VDU)

Graphics

Magnetically encoded    

 

PROCESSING DEVICES

The CPU which is responsible for the processing and control of all the data flowing into, out of and around the system. It has control unit and arithmetic and logical unit. 

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117582

Information and communications technological is often used as an extended synonym for information technology (IT); the expression was first used in 1997 in a report by Dennis Stevenson to the U.K government and promoted by the new National Curriculum documents for the U.K. in 2000. The term is now also used to refer to the merging of audio-visual and telephone networks with computer networks through a single cabling or link system.

 ICT is also used as an overarching term in many schools, universities and colleges stretching from information systems/technology at the organizational end through to soft engineering and computer systems engineering at the other

DEFINITION OF COMPUTER

A computer is a data processing machine which can store and process data based on the logical supplied by the user. It stores information within itself and performs the necessary processing steps automatically.

TYPES OF COMPUTER

  • Analog computer
  • Hybrid computer
  • Digital computer
  • Mainframe computer
  • Mini computer
  • Micro computer   

 

USES OF COMPUTER

  1. For mathematical calculation
  2. Serve as a aid for e-learning
  3. For making greeting cards
  4. It can send electrical pulses at an incredible speed
  5. It can produce accurate result once the input is correct
  6. It stores and process large volume of data without being affected
  7. It is reliable and can perform every task with the same speed and accuracy
  8. it executes task without any human intervention as far as the program is stored in it

 

LIST OF INPUT DEVICE

1)     Keyboard

2)     Pointing devices

3)     Game controller

4)     Imaging input

5)     Audio input

 

OUTPUT DEVICE

Printer

Visual display Unit (VDU)

Graphics

Magnetically encoded    

 

PROCESSING DEVICES

  1. Control unit
  2. Arithmetic and Logical unit 
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